This research report provides empirical evidence from three case studies in Tanzania, Ghana and Myanmar to address the existing literature gap on gender and PUE. The focus is on electricity, because our target regions benefited from interventions to provide access to electricity, and in some cases to promote productive uses and gender mainstreaming. However, our fieldwork covered all the different types of energy that women and men use productively, including cooking fuels, diesel or even metabolic energy. We address three research questions. What are the differential benefits of PUE for men and women? What explains these differences? And which interventions can successfully address the constraints faced by men and women to benefit from PUE?